It is well established that the prefrontal cortex is involved during memory-guided tasks whereas visually guided tasks are controlled in part by a frontal-parietal network. However, the nature of the transition from visually guided to memoryguided force control is not as well established. As such, this study examines the spatiotemporal pattern of brain activity that occurs during the transition from visually guided to memory-guided force control. We measured 128-channel scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy individuals while they performed a grip force task. After visual feedback was removed, the first significant change in event-related activity occurred in the left central region by 300 ms, followed by changes in prefrontal cortex by 400 ms. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to localize the strongest activity to the left ventral premotor cortex and ventral prefrontal cortex. A second experiment altered visual feedback gain but did not require memory. In contrast to memory-guided force control, altering visual feedback gain did not lead to early changes in the left central and midline prefrontal regions. Decreasing the spatial amplitude of visual feedback did lead to changes in the midline central region by 300 ms, followed by changes in occipital activity by 400 ms. The findings show that subjects rely on sensorimotor memory processes involving left ventral premotor cortex and ventral prefrontal cortex after the immediate transition from visually guided to memoryguided force control.
- Event-related potentials
- Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography
- Visuomotor system
- Working memory
ASJC Scopus subject areas