Species- and cell type-specific requirements for cellular transformation

Annapoorni Rangarajan, Sue J. Hong, Annie Gifford, Robert A. Weinberg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

435 Scopus citations


Recent evidence suggests that human cells require more genetic changes for neoplastic transformation than do their murine counterparts. However, a precise enumeration of these differences has never been undertaken. We have determined that perturbation of two signaling pathways - involving p53 and Raf - suffices for the tumorigenic conversion of normal murine fibroblasts, while perturbation of six pathways - involving p53, pRb, PP2A, telomerase, Raf, and Ral-GEFs - is needed for human fibroblasts. Cell type-specific differences also exist in the requirements for tumorigenic transformation: immortalized human fibroblasts require the activation of Raf and Ral-GEFs, human embryonic kidney cells require the activation of PI3K and Ral-GEFs, and human mammary epithelial cells require the activation of Raf, PI3K, and Ral-GEFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-183
Number of pages13
JournalCancer Cell
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cell Biology
  • Cancer Research


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