Spin-Frustrated Trisradical Trication of PrismCage

Han Han, Yuheng Huang, Chun Tang, Yiming Liu, Matthew D. Krzyaniak, Bo Song, Xuesong Li, Guangcheng Wu, Yong Wu, Ruihua Zhang, Yang Jiao, Xingang Zhao, Xiao Yang Chen, Huang Wu, Charlotte L. Stern, Yuguo Ma, Yunyan Qiu*, Michael R. Wasielewski*, J. Fraser Stoddart*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Organic trisradicals featuring threefold symmetry have attracted significant interest because of their unique magnetic properties associated with spin frustration. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a triangular prism-shaped organic cage for which we have coined the name PrismCage6+ and its trisradical trication─TR3(•+). PrismCage6+ is composed of three 4,4′-bipyridinium dications and two 1,3,5-phenylene units bridged by six methylene groups. In the solid state, PrismCage6+ adopts a highly twisted conformation with close to C3 symmetry as a result of encapsulating one PF6- anion as a guest. PrismCage6+ undergoes stepwise reduction to its mono-, di-, and trisradical cations in MeCN on account of strong electronic communication between its 4,4′-bipyridinium units. TR3(•+), which is obtained by the reduction of PrismCage6+ employing CoCp2, adopts a triangular prism-shaped conformation with close to C2v symmetry in the solid state. Temperature-dependent continuous-wave and nutation-frequency-selective electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of TR3(•+) in frozen N,N-dimethylformamide indicate its doublet ground state. The doublet-quartet energy gap of TR3(•+) is estimated to be −0.08 kcal mol-1, and the critical temperature of spin-state conversion is found to be ca. 50 K, suggesting that it displays pronounced spin frustration at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this example is the first organic radical cage to exhibit spin frustration. The trisradical trication of PrismCage6+ opens up new possibilities for fundamental investigations and potential applications in the fields of both organic cages and spin chemistry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18402-18413
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number33
StatePublished - Aug 23 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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