Stability of Halide Perovskite Solar Cell Devices: In Situ Observation of Oxygen Diffusion under Biasing

Hee Joon Jung, Daehan Kim, Sungkyu Kim, Joonsuk Park, Vinayak P. Dravid*, Byungha Shin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Using in situ electrical biasing transmission electron microscopy, structural and chemical modification to n–i–p-type MAPbI3 solar cells are examined with a TiO2 electron-transporting layer caused by bias in the absence of other stimuli known to affect the physical integrity of MAPbI3 such as moisture, oxygen, light, and thermal stress. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements reveal that oxygen ions are released from the TiO2 and migrate into the MAPbI3 under a forward bias. The injection of oxygen is accompanied by significant structural transformation; a single-crystalline MAPbI3 grain becomes amorphous with the appearance of PbI2. Withdrawal of oxygen back to the TiO2, and some restoration of the crystallinity of the MAPbI3, is observed after the storage in dark under no bias. A subsequent application of a reverse bias further removes more oxygen ions from the MAPbI3. Light current–voltage measurements of perovskite solar cells exhibit poorer performance after elongated forward biasing; recovery of the performance, though not complete, is achieved by subsequently applying a negative bias. The results indicate negative impacts on the device performance caused by the oxygen migration to the MAPbI3 under a forward bias. This study identifies a new degradation mechanism intrinsic to n–i–p MAPbI3 devices with TiO2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1802769
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number39
StatePublished - Sep 26 2018


  • EELS
  • degradation
  • in situ TEM
  • perovskite solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)


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