Raymond J. Krizek*, Barry R. Christopher, Steven D. Scherer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Two different double alkali scrubber sludges were mixed with various percentages of Portland cement, hydrated lime, fly ash, anionic polymers, activated sewage sludge, and a silty clay, and twenty-nine series of strain-controlled unconfined compression tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of these additives on the strength and stiffness of the resulting mixtures. Three additional series of tests were performed to place these results in perspective with those from another scrubber sludge containing fly ash, a typical clayey silt, and a soil-fly ash mixture. The most promising additive was fly ash, perhaps with a small percentage of lime. Portland cement mixtures and cement-fly ash combinations also yielded excellent properties, but economic considerations would seriously limit their use. The addition of lime only, soil, sewage sludge, or polymers either produced relatively small improvements or actual reductions in the strength and stiffness values.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-304
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of civil engineering design
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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