OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between state-mandated insurance coverage for infertility treatment in the United States and the utilization of and indication for preimplantation genetic testing. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 301,465 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology between 2014 and 2016. Binomial logistic regression was performed to examine associations between state-mandated insurance coverage and preimplantation genetic testing use. The neonate's sex from each patient's first successful cycle was used to calculate sex ratios. Sex ratios then were compared by state mandates and preimplantation genetic testing indication for elective sex selection. RESULTS: The proportion of IVF cycles using preimplantation genetic testing increased from 17% in 2014 to 34% in 2016. This increase was driven largely by preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy testing. Preimplantation genetic testing was less likely to be performed in states with mandates for insurance coverage than in those without mandates (risk ratio [RR] 0.69, 95% CI 0.67-0.71, P<.001). Preimplantation genetic testing use for elective sex selection was also less likely to be performed in states with mandates (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36-0.53, P<.001). Among liveborn neonates, the male/female sex ratio was higher for IVF cycles with preimplantation genetic testing for any indication (115) than for those without preimplantation genetic testing (105) (P<.001), and the use of preimplantation genetic testing specifically for elective sex selection had a substantially higher (164) male/female sex ratio than preimplantation genetic testing for other indications (112) (P<.001). CONCLUSION: The proportion of IVF cycles using preimplantation genetic testing in the United States is increasing and is highest in states where IVF is largely self-funded. Preimplantation genetic testing for nonmedical sex selection is also more common in states where IVF is self-funded and is more likely to result in male offspring. Continued surveillance of these trends is important, because these practices are controversial and could have implications for future population demographics.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology