State of Sweat: Emerging Wearable Systems for Real-Time, Noninvasive Sweat Sensing and Analytics

Roozbeh Ghaffari, Da Som Yang, Joohee Kim, Amer Mansour, John A. Wright, Jeffrey B. Model, Donald E. Wright, John A. Rogers, Tyler R. Ray*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Skin-interfaced wearable systems with integrated colorimetric assays, microfluidic channels, and electrochemical sensors offer powerful capabilities for noninvasive, real-time sweat analysis. This Perspective details recent progress in the development and translation of novel wearable sensors for personalized assessment of sweat dynamics and biomarkers, with precise sampling and real-time analysis. Sensor accuracy, system ruggedness, and large-scale deployment in remote environments represent key opportunity areas, enabling broad deployment in the context of field studies, clinical trials, and recent commercialization. On-body measurements in these contexts show good agreement compared to conventional laboratory-based sweat analysis approaches. These device demonstrations highlight the utility of biochemical sensing platforms for personalized assessment of performance, wellness, and health across a broad range of applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2787-2801
Number of pages15
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 27 2021


  • biosensors
  • eccrine sweat
  • epidermal microfluidics
  • flexible electronics
  • health monitoring
  • lab-on-chip
  • sweat analysis
  • wearable sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'State of Sweat: Emerging Wearable Systems for Real-Time, Noninvasive Sweat Sensing and Analytics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this