Strain Hardening of Hadfield Manganese Steel

P. H. Adler*, G. B. Olson, W. S. Owen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

330 Scopus citations


The plastic flow behavior of Hadfield manganese steel in uniaxial tension and compression is shown to be greatly influenced by transformation plasticity phenomena. Changes in the stress-strain (σ-ε) curves with temperature correlate with the observed extent of deformation twinning, consistent with a softening effect of twinning as a deformation mechanism and a hardening effect of the twinned microstructure. The combined effects give upward curvature to the σ-ε curve over extensive ranges of plastic strain. A higher strain hardening in compression compared with tension appears to be consistent with the observed texture development. The composition dependence of stacking fault energy computed using a thermodynamic model suggests that the Hadfield composition is optimum for a maximum rate of deformation twinning. Comparisons of the Hadfield steel with a Co-33Ni alloy exhibiting similar twinning kinetics, and an Fe-21Ni-lC alloy deforming by slip indicate no unusual strain hardening at low strains where deformation is controlled by slip, but an unusual amount of structural hardening associated with the twin formation in the Hadfield steel. A possible mechanism of anomalous twin hardening is discussed in terms of modified twinning behavior (pseudotwinning) in nonrandom solid solutions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1725-1737
Number of pages13
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1986

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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