Purpose: The aim of this study is to review the current evidence-based data regarding strategies for prevention of central venous catheter (CVC) infections at the time of catheter insertion and as a part of routine care. Methods: We conducted a PubMed search from January 1990 to November 2010 using the following keywords: central venous catheter, clinical trials, pediatric, infection, prevention, antibiotic, chlorhexidine, dressing, antiseptic impregnated catheters, ethanol lock, impregnated cuff, insertion site infection, and Cochrane systematic review. Seven questions, selected by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee, were addressed. Results: Thirty-six studies were selected for detailed review based on the strength of their study design and relevance to our 7 questions. These studies provide evidence that (1) chlorhexidine skin prep and chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing can decrease CVC colonization and bloodstream infection, (2) use of heparin and antibiotic-impregnated CVCs can decrease CVC colonization and bloodstream infection, and (3) ethanol and vancomycin lock therapy can reduce the incidence of catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Conclusion: Grade A and B recommendations can be made based on available evidence in adult and limited pediatric studies for multiple components of proper CVC insertion practices and subsequent management. These strategies can minimize the risk of CVC infections in pediatric patients.
- Bloodstream infection
- Catheter colonization
- Central venous catheter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health