Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and elaboration

Jan P. Vandenbroucke, Erik von Elm, Douglas G. Altman, Peter C. Gøtzsche, Cynthia D. Mulrow, Stuart J. Pocock, Charles Poole, James J. Schlesselman, Matthias Egger*, Maria Blettner, Paolo Boffetta, Hermann Brenner, Genevie've Chêne, Cyrus Cooper, George Davey-Smith, France Gagnon, Philip Greenland, Sander Greenland, Claire Infante-Rivard, John IoannidisAstrid James, Giselle Jones, Bruno Ledergerber, Julian Little, Margaret May, David Moher, Hooman Momen, Alfredo Morabia, Hal Morgenstern, Fred Paccaud, Martin Röösli, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Kenneth Rothman, Caroline Sabin, Willi Sauerbrei, Lale Say, Jonathan Sterne, Holly Syddall, Ian White, Susan Wieland, Hywel Williams, Guang Yong Zou, the STROBE Initiative

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

724 Scopus citations

Abstract

Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1500-1524
Number of pages25
JournalInternational Journal of Surgery
Volume12
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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