Structure of yeast hexokinase. IV. Low-resolution structure of enzyme-Substrate complexes revealing negative co-operativity and allosteric interactions

Wayne F. Anderson*, Thomas A. Steitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

We conclude from X-ray diffraction studies at low resolution (7 Å) that the binding of sugar and nucleotide substrates to dimeric yeast hexokinase BII crystals exhibits both negative co-operativity and positive allosteric co-operativity. Difference electron density maps show the positions of sugar and nucleotide binding sites and extensive substrate-induced structural changes in the protein. Sugar substrates and inhibitors bind in the deep cleft that divides each subunit into two lobes and nucleotide substrates bind nearby to one site per dimer, which lies between the subunits and on the molecular symmetry axis. Although the inhibitors o- and p-iodobenzoylglucosamine and o-toluoylglucosamine bind equally to both subunits, the degree of substitution of glucose or xylose is very different for the two subunits. The substrate analog β, γ-imido ATP shows only one strong binding site per dimer. This negative co-operativity in substrate binding may result from the heterologous or non-equivalent association of the two subunits (Anderson et al., 1974), which provides non-equivalent environments for the two chemically identical subunits. Further, there is a positive allosteric interaction between the sugar and nucleotide binding sites. Sugar binding is required for nucleotide binding at the intersubunit site and the binding of nucleotide modifies the binding of sugars. These positive heterotropic interactions appear to be mediated by extensive substrate-induced structural changes in the enzyme.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-282,IN9-IN12,283-287
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Volume92
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 25 1975

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Molecular Biology

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