Subclinical early posttraumatic seizures detected by continuous EEG monitoring in a consecutive pediatric cohort

Daniel H. Arndt, Jason T. Lerner*, Joyce H. Matsumoto, Andranik Madikians, Sue Yudovin, Hannah Valino, David L. McArthur, Joyce Y. Wu, Michelle Leung, Farzad Buxey, Conrad Szeliga, Michele Van Hirtum-Das, Raman Sankar, Amy Brooks-Kayal, Christopher C. Giza

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations

Abstract

Summary Purpose Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and early posttraumatic seizures (EPTS) are a contributing factor to ongoing acute damage. Continuous video-EEG monitoring (cEEG) was utilized to assess the burden of clinical and electrographic EPTS. Methods Eighty-seven consecutive, unselected (mild - severe), acute TBI patients requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission at two academic centers were monitored prospectively with cEEG per established clinical TBI protocols. Clinical and subclinical seizures and status epilepticus (SE, clinical and subclinical) were assessed for their relation to clinical risk factors and short-term outcome measures. Key Findings Of all patients, 42.5% (37/87) had seizures. Younger age (p = 0.002) and injury mechanism (abusive head trauma - AHT, p < 0.001) were significant risk factors. Subclinical seizures occurred in 16.1% (14/87), while 6.9% (6/87) had only subclinical seizures. Risk factors for subclinical seizures included younger age (p < 0.001), AHT (p < 0.001), and intraaxial bleed (p < 0.001). SE occurred in 18.4% (16/87) with risk factors including younger age (p < 0.001), AHT (p < 0.001), and intraaxial bleed (p = 0.002). Subclinical SE was detected in 13.8% (12/87) with significant risk factors including younger age (p < 0.001), AHT (p = 0.001), and intraaxial bleed (p = 0.004). Subclinical seizures were associated with lower discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) score (p = 0.002). SE and subclinical SE were associated with increased hospital length of stay (p = 0.017 and p = 0.041, respectively) and lower hospital discharge KOSCHI (p = 0.007 and p = 0.040, respectively). Significance cEEG monitoring significantly improves detection of seizures/SE and is the only way to detect subclinical seizures/SE. cEEG may be indicated after pediatric TBI, particularly in younger children, AHT cases, and those with intraaxial blood on computerized tomography (CT).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1780-1788
Number of pages9
JournalEpilepsia
Volume54
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Children
  • Clinical neurophysiology
  • Epilepsy
  • ICU

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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