Subsolidus phase relationships in the ZnO-In2O 3-SnO2 system

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The subsolidus phase relationships in the ZnO-InO1.5-SnO 2 system were investigated at 1275°C using X-ray diffraction. Each of the end members of the ternary diagram is a transparent conducting oxide. There are two substantial solid solutions in the ternary phase space, the bixbyite solid solution In2-2xZnxSnxO 3 (x=0-0.40), and the indium substituted zinc stannate spinel, Zn(2-x)Sn(1-x)In2xO4 (x=0-0.45). The bixbyite solid solution is an outstanding TCO, whereas the spinel is only moderately conducting. Along the ZnO-InO1.5 binary, there is a series of transparent conducting homologous compounds (ZnO)k·In 2O3 (where k=3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11). Within ternary phase space, these homologous compounds were found to exhibit negligible Sn solubility, and were always found to be compatible with the spinel. Equilibrium was difficult to achieve in the phase space between the homologous series compounds and the spinel, owing to sluggish kinetics. A procedure involving mixtures of prereacted spinel and the Zn11In2O 14 (k=11) compound was developed, which allowed for more rapid approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, thereby allowing for the establishment of phase relationships near the ZnO corner of the phase diagram.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3683-3689
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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