To gain insight into the mechanism of herpesvirus entry into cells, the four glycoproteins that are necessary for herpes simplex virus (HSV) fusion were cloned from the saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (SaHV-1) genome, a primate member of the alphaherpesvirus family. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that SaHV-1 entry glycoproteins function with the previously identified alphaherpesvirus entry receptors nectin-1 and CD155 but not with herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) or paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα). Replacement of HSV-1 gD with the SaHV-1 gD homolog resulted in a complete loss of fusion function when coexpressed with HSV-1 gB and gH/gL. HSV-1 gD was also unable to substitute for SaHV-1 gD when coexpressed with SaHV-1 gB and gH/gL. Similarly, the gH/gL heterodimers from HSV-1 and SaHV-1 were not interchangeable. In contrast, both the HSV-1 and SaHV-1 gB homologs retained function in a heterotypic context. These results suggest that an essential interaction between homotypic gD and gH/gL occurs during both HSV-1 and SaHV-1 entry. To map the site of this homotypic interaction, we created a series of gD chimeras, focusing on the "profusion domain" (PFD) that consists of HSV-1 gD residues 261 to 305 or SaHV-1 gD residues 264 to 307. We identified a seven-amino-acid stretch (264 RTLPPPK 270) at the N terminus of the SaHV-1 gD PFD that contributes to homotypic fusion. Finally, we found that the gD receptor-binding region and PFD cannot function independently but that both can inhibit the function of wild-type gD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science