Sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials examined by x-ray microtomography

N. N. Naik*, K. E. Kurtis, A. P. Wilkinson, A. C. Jupe, Stuart R Stock

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Sulfate ions present in soil, groundwater, seawater, decaying organic matter, acid rain, and industrial effluent adversely affect the long-term durability of portland cement concrete, but lack of complete understanding of the nature and consequences of sulfate attack hamper our ability to accurately predict performance of concrete in sulfate-rich environments. One impediment to improved understanding of sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials has been the lack of appropriate non-destructive characterization techniques. Laboratory x-ray microtomography affords an opportunity to study in situ the evolution of physical manifestations of damage due to sulfate exposure. The influence of materials selection and mixture parameters - including water-to-cement ratio, cement type, and presence or absence of aggregate, as well as the influence of sulfate exposure conditions, including sulfate and cation type (i.e., Na 2SO 4 and MgSO 4) and concentration - have been examined by microtomography to determine their influence on the rate and character of the sulfate-induced deterioration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number47
Pages (from-to)442-452
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Dec 1 2004
EventDevelopments in X-Ray Tomography IV - Denver, CO, United States
Duration: Aug 4 2004Aug 6 2004


  • Cement
  • Concrete
  • Degradation
  • Durability
  • Microtomography
  • Non-destructive
  • Sulfate
  • Tomography
  • X-ray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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