Summer and school-term youth employment: ecological and longitudinal analyses.

P. H. Hardesty*, B. J. Hirsch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The effects of summer versus school-year employment on self-esteem, peer relationships, and family social climate were investigated in a sample of 135 adolescents. Students were assessed the summer before entrance into high school and during the second semester of high school, using a longitudinal design. Cross-sectional findings indicated that, during the summer, 52 workers possessed higher self-esteem than 79 nonworkers. Longitudinal analysis indicated that 10 girls who worked only during the school term reported increases in both stress and activity with peers. At our final assessment, the families of 49 students who did not work at either time had become more conflicted and less cohesive than families of all other students. The developmental implications of these results are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)595-606
Number of pages12
JournalPsychological reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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