Sun Protection Education for Diverse Audiences: Need for Skin Cancer Pictures

Yanina Guevara, Rikki Gaber, Marla L. Clayman, Elisa J. Gordon, John Friedewald, June K. Robinson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 women and 12 men with a median age of 52. In 16 of the cognitive interviews with non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinos, pictures of skin cancer were requested by the participants in order to see the appearance of skin cancer. Kidney transplant recipients with skin of color did not consider themselves at risk to develop skin cancer and wanted to see examples of skin cancer occurring on people with skin of color. Based on these results, the workbook was modified to include pictures of squamous cell carcinoma on varying skin tones. Then, 8 participants evaluated the revised workbook in cognitive interviews and found the photographs acceptable and necessary to demonstrate the severity of skin cancer and personalize their risk of developing skin cancer. The participants progressed from having knowledge of skin cancer to believing that they could develop skin cancer because they observed skin cancers on people with their skin tone. Using pictures of skin cancers occurring on people with similar skin tone may heighten a kidney transplant recipients’ sense of vulnerability and possibly improve the use of sun protection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-189
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Cancer Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2015


  • Kidney transplant recipients
  • Skin cancer
  • Sun protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Oncology


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