Superlattice Patterns in the Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equations with Multi-Resonant Forcing

J. M. Conway, H. Riecke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Motivated by the rich variety of complex patterns observed on the surface of fluid layers that are vibrated at multiple frequencies, we investigate the effect of such resonant forcing on systems undergoing a Hopf bifurcation to spatially homogeneous oscillations. We use an extension of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation that systematically captures weak forcing functions with a spectrum consisting of frequencies close to the 1:1-, the 1:2-, and the 1:3-resonance. By slowly modulating the amplitude of the 1:2-forcing component, we render the bifurcation to subharmonic patterns supercritical despite the quadratic interaction introduced by the 1:3-forcing. Our weakly nonlinear analysis shows that quite generally the forcing function can be tuned such that resonant triad interactions with weakly damped modes stabilize subharmonic superlattice patterns comprising four or five Fourier modes. Using direct simulations of the extended complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, we confirm our weakly nonlinear analysis. In sufficiently large systems domains of different complex patterns compete with each other on a slow time scale. As expected from leading-order energy arguments, with increasing strength of the triad interaction the more complex patterns eventually win out against the simpler patterns. We characterize these ordering dynamics using the spectral entropy of the patterns. For system parameters reported for experiments on the oscillatory Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction we explicitly show that the forcing parameters can be tuned such that 4-mode patterns are the preferred patterns.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)977-1004
JournalSIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems
StatePublished - 2009

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