Suppressed Oxidation and Photodarkening of Hybrid Tin Iodide Perovskite Achieved with Reductive Organic Small Molecule

Jue Gong, Xun Li, Wei Huang, Peijun Guo, Tobin J. Marks, Richard D. Schaller, Tao Xu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tin(II)-based halide perovskites have shown promise in lead-free and mixed tin(II)-lead ideal-band-gap photovoltaic applications. Nonetheless, they notoriously suffer from oxidation in oxygen environments, thereby sustaining rapid self-doping during synthesis and further material degradation in postfabrication stages. As such, enhancing the chemical stabilities of tin(II) halide perovskites is imperatively crucial for the further advancement of any relevant eco-friendly and low-band-gap photovoltaic technology. Here, we demonstrate that hydroquinone, a chemically reductive organic molecule, can effectively improve the stability of perovskite methylammonium tin(II) iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) in a dry air environment, as shown by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Furthermore, the luminescence longevity of the hydroquinone-treated CH3NH3SnI3 film is much greater than its undoped pristine counterpart in ambient air, as unambiguously evidenced by their time-dependent steady-state photoluminescence spectra. Meanwhile, time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) decays reveal nearly unchanged carrier recombination lifetimes in both types of perovskite materials during degradation, which therefore infers a facile oxidation process for these thin films. This work provides a practical clue to stable and high-performance tin(II)-based perovskite optoelectronics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4704-4710
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 24 2021


  • halide perovskite
  • hydroquinone
  • lead-free
  • oxidation
  • photoluminescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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