Two series of self-complementary daisy chain monomers, in which a secondary ammonium ion-containing arm is grafted onto a macrocycle with either a - or crown-8 constitution, have been synthesized. In the solid- and 'gas'-phases, the parent crown-8-based monomer forms dimeric superstructures, as revealed by X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry, respectively. Elucidation of the complicated solution-phase behavior of this compound was facilitated by the synthesis and study of both deuterated, and fluorinated, analogues. These investigations revealed that the cyclic dimeric superstructure also dominates in solution, except when extremes of either concentration (low), temperature (high), or solvent polarity (highly polar, e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide) are employed. Whereas, upon aggregation, the crown-8-based daisy chain monomers have the capacity to form stereoisomeric superstructures further complicating the study of this series of compounds. The assembly of crown-8-based monomers gives only achiral superstructures. The weaker association exhibited between secondary dialkylammonium ions and crown ethers with a crown-8 constitution, however, resulted in limited oligomerization-only dimeric and trimeric superstructures were formed at experimentally attainable concentrations-of crown-8-based daisy chain monomers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry