Surface chemistry of In 2 O 3 deposition using In(CH 3 ) 3 and H 2 O in a binary reaction sequence

A. W. Ott, J. M. Johnson, J. W. Klaus, S. M. George*

*Corresponding author for this work

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35 Scopus citations


Sequential surface chemical reactions for the controlled deposition of In 2 O 3 were examined using transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In this study, the binary reaction (2In(CH 3 ) 3 + 3H 2 O → In 2 O 3 + 6CH 4 ) was separated into two half-reactions: (A) InOH * + In(CH 3 ) 3 → In-O-In(CH 3 ) 2 * + CH4; (B) InCH 3 * + H 2 O → InOH* + CH 4 , where the asterisks designate the surface species. The InOH* and InCH 3 * surface species were monitored by the infrared absorbances of the InO-H and InC-H 3 stretching vibrations. The reactions were thermally activated and the maximum reaction temperature was limited to 525 K because of trimethylindium (TMIn) pyrolysis. At 525 K, the (A) reaction saturated after depletion of ∼60% of the InOH* coverage. In contrast, the (B) reaction went to completion and was self-limiting. Despite these observed surface reactions, the growth of conformal In 2 O 3 films was not achieved on Si(100) at 525 K. Very rough In 2 O 3 films with low growth rates were also observed at 675-775 K in previous studies using InCl 3 and H 2 O in a binary reaction sequence. The thermal stabilities of the InOH* and InCH 3 * surface species were measured from 300-900 K. The low coverage of surface species at the various reaction temperatures may explain the rough In 2 O 3 films and low In 2 O 3 growth rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-215
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Surface Science
StatePublished - Mar 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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