STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify risk factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI) after posterior long segment spinal fusion (PLSF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Patients who undergo PLSF may be at elevated risk of SSI. Identifying factors associated with SSI in these operations can help risk stratify patients and tailor management. METHODS: We analyzed PLSFs-seven or more levels-at our institution from 2000 to 2015. Data on patients' clinical characteristics, procedural factors, and antimicrobial management were collected. Multivariable analysis identified factors independently associated with outcomes of interest. RESULTS: In 628 cases, SSI was associated with steroid use (P = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] = 2.54) and using cefazolin (P < 0.001, OR = 4.37) or bacitracin (P = 0.010, OR 3.49) irrigation, as opposed to gentamicin or other irrigation. Gram-positive infections were more likely with staged procedures (P = 0.021, OR 4.91) and bacitracin irrigation (P < 0.001, OR = 17.98), and less likely with vancomycin powder (P = 0.050, OR 0.20). Gram-negative infections were more likely with a history of peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.034, OR = 3.21) or cefazolin irrigation (P < 0.001, OR 25.47). Readmission was more likely after staged procedures (P = 0.003, OR = 3.31), cervical spine surgery (P = 0.023, OR = 2.28), or cefazolin irrigation (P = 0.039, OR = 1.85). Reoperation was more common with more comorbidities (P = 0.022, OR 1.09), staged procedures (P < 0.001, OR = 4.72), cervical surgeries (P = 0.013, OR = 2.36), more participants in the surgery (P = 0.011, OR = 1.06), using cefazolin (P < 0.001, OR = 3.12) or bacitracin (P = 0.009, OR = 3.15) irrigation, and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate at readmission (P = 0.009, OR = 1.04). Washouts were more likely among patients with more comorbidities (P = 0.013, OR = 1.16), or who used steroids (P = 0.022, OR = 2.92), and less likely after cervical surgery (P = 0.028, OR = 0.24). Instrumentation removal was more common with bacitracin irrigation (p = 0.013, OR = 31.76). CONCLUSION: Patient factors, whether a procedure is staged, and choice of antibiotic irrigation affect the risk of SSI and ensuing management required.Level of Evidence: 4.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Clinical Neurology