Survivorship in immune therapy: Assessing toxicities, body composition and health-related quality of life among long-term survivors treated with antibodies to programmed death-1 receptor and its ligand

James Randall Patrinely*, Arissa C. Young, Henry Quach, Grant R. Williams, Fei Ye, Run Fan, Leora Horn, Kathryn E. Beckermann, Erin A. Gillaspie, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Debra L. Friedman, Javid J. Moslehi, Douglas B. Johnson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: Antibodies to programmed death-1 receptor and its ligand (anti–PD-1/PD-L1) produce durable responses in many cancers. However, the long-term effects of anti–PD-1/PD-L1 blockade are not well defined. We identified the toxicities, health outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst long-term survivors treated with anti–PD-1/PD-L1. Methods: We assessed 217 patients who received anti–PD-1/PD-L1 for melanoma, renal cell carcinoma or non–small-cell lung carcinoma between 2009 and 2017, with survival greater than two years after treatment. Patient and tumour characteristics, immune-related adverse events (irAEs), cardiometabolic parameters (glucose, blood pressure, body mass index [BMI]), body composition (using automated body composition analyser, computed tomography and Slice-o-matic software) and HRQoL outcomes were tracked. Results: Among the included patients, most were men (70.3%) and at anti–PD-1/PD-L1 initiation had an average age of 61.0 years and median BMI of 28.5. Median overall survival was not reached; 33 (15.2%) died during the follow-up primarily from progressive cancer (n = 28). At the last follow-up, most patients' Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 (38%) or 1 (41%). There was no difference in blood pressure, glucose or BMI from baseline to two years after treatment initiation. Body composition showed increased adiposity (p = 0.05), skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.03) and skeletal muscle gauge (p = 0.04). We observed chronic irAEs at the last follow-up including hypothyroidism (10.6%), arthritis (3.2%), adrenal insufficiency (3.2%) and neuropathy (2.8%). New diagnoses of type 2 diabetes (6.5%) and hypertension (6.0%) were observed, with uncertain relationship to anti–PD-1/PD-L1. Patient-reported outcomes compared favourably with cancer and general populations, although younger age (p = 0.003) and need for subsequent therapy (p = 0.03) were associated with worse HRQoL outcomes. Conclusion: Durable responses to anti–PD-1/PD-L1 therapy and favourable HRQoL outcomes are encouraging. Chronic events may be more common than previously thought although no clear chronic adverse cardiometabolic effects were observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-220
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer
Volume135
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2020

Keywords

  • Anti–PD-1
  • Checkpoint inhibitors
  • Lung cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Nivolumab
  • Pembrolizumab
  • Quality of life
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Survivorship
  • Toxicities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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