Synergistic association of fluid overload and acute kidney injury on outcomes in pediatric cardiac ECMO: a retrospective analysis of the KIDMO database

Kevin A. Pettit*, David T. Selewski, David J. Askenazi, Rajit K. Basu, Brian C. Bridges, David S. Cooper, Geoffrey M. Fleming, Jason Gien, Stephen M. Gorga, Jennifer G. Jetton, Eileen C. King, Heidi J. Steflik, Matthew L. Paden, Rashmi D. Sahay, Michael Zappitelli, Katja M. Gist

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload (FO) are associated with poor outcomes in children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our objective is to evaluate the impact of AKI and FO on pediatric patients receiving ECMO for cardiac pathology. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the six-center Kidney Interventions During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (KIDMO) database, including only children who underwent ECMO for cardiac pathology. AKI was defined using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) creatinine criteria. FO was defined as < 10% (FO–) vs. ≥ 10% (FO +) and was evaluated at ECMO initiation, peak during ECMO, and ECMO discontinuation. Primary outcomes were mortality and length of stay (LOS). Results: Data from 191 patients were included. Non-survivors (56%) were more likely to be FO + than survivors at peak ECMO fluid status and ECMO discontinuation. There was a significant interaction between AKI and FO. In the presence of AKI, the adjusted odds of mortality for FO + was 4.79 times greater than FO– (95% CI: 1.52–15.12, p = 0.01). In the presence of FO + , the adjusted odds of mortality for AKI + was 2.7 times higher than AKI– [95%CI: 1.10–6.60; p = 0.03]. Peak FO + was associated with a 55% adjusted relative increase in LOS [95%CI: 1.07–2.26, p = 0.02]. Conclusions: The association of peak FO + with mortality is present only in the presence of AKI +. Similarly, AKI + is associated with mortality only in the presence of peak FO +. FO + was associated with LOS. Studies targeting fluid management have the potential to improve LOS and mortality outcomes. Graphical abstract: A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1343-1353
Number of pages11
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • Cardiac disease
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • Kidney support therapy
  • Life support
  • Renal replacement therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Nephrology


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