Aim: To quantify through systematic review the pharmacokinetic profiles of the oral delayed release and sustained release mesalazine (5-aminosalicylate, 5ASA) formulations (Asacol, Salofalk, Mesasal, Claversal, Pentasa) and pro-drugs (sulfasalazine, olsalazine, balsalazide) used in the management of ulcerative colitis. Methods: Selected articles had: (1) adult healthy volunteers or patients with ulcerative colitis and (2) quantification of pharmacokinetic data to include, at a minimum, urinary excretion of total 5ASA [5ASA plus N-Acetyl-5ASA (N-Ac-5ASA)]. Data collection and analysis: Pharmacokinetic data (Tmax, Cmax, AUC, urinary excretion, faecal excretion) of 5ASA, its major metabolite N-Acetyl-5ASA, total 5ASA, and the parent pro-drug compounds was extracted. Main results: The summary results for urinary excretion of total 5ASA over 24-96 h in all subjects (either mean or median) were: sulfasalazine mean 11-33% or median 22%; olsalazine mean 14-31% or median 16-27%; balsalazide mean 12-35% or median 20%; Asacol mean 10-35% or median 18-40%; Pentasa mean 15-53% or median 23-34%; Salofalk, Mesasal and Claversal mean 27-56% or median 31-44%. The summary results for faecal excretion of total 5ASA over 24-96 h in all subjects (either mean or median) were: sulfasalazine mean 23-75% or median 38%; olsalazine mean 47-50% or median 17-36%; balsalazide mean 46% or median 22%; Asacol mean 40-64% or median 20-56%; Pentasa mean 12-51% or median 39-59%; Salofalk, Mesasal and Claversal mean 37-44% or median 23-35%. Conclusions: The systemic exposure to 5ASA, as measured by urinary excretion of total 5ASA, and the faecal excretion of total 5ASA is comparable for all oral mesalazine formulations and pro-drugs. Thus, selection of a mesalazine therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis should be based on other factors such as efficacy, dose-response, toxicity of the parent compound and its metabolites, compliance issues related to dose forms and dosing schedules, and costs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)