Systemic treatment in unresectable metastatic well-differentiated carcinoid tumors: Consensus results from a modified Delphi process

Jonathan R. Strosberg, George A. Fisher, Al B. Benson, Jennifer L. Malin, Dasha Cherepanov, Michael S. Broder*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop expert consensus for the use of systemic treatments for unresectable metastatic well-differentiated (grade 1-2) carcinoid tumors using the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi process. METHODS: After a comprehensive literature review, 404 patient scenarios addressing the use of systemic treatments for carcinoid tumors were constructed. A multidisciplinary panel of 10 physicians assessed the scenarios as appropriate, inappropriate, or uncertain (on a 1-9 scale) or as an area of disagreement before and after an extended discussion of the evidence. RESULTS: Experts were medical and surgical oncologists, interventional radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Among rated scenarios, disagreement decreased from 14% before the meeting to 4% after. Consensus statements about midgut carcinoids included the following: (1) Somatostatin analogs are appropriate as first-line therapy for all patients; (2) In patients with uncontrolled secretory symptoms, it is appropriate to increase the dose/frequency of octreotide long-acting repeatable up to 60 mg every 4 weeks or up to 40 mg every 3 weeks as second-line therapy for refractory carcinoid syndrome. Other options may also be appropriate. Consensus was similar for non-midgut carcinoids. CONCLUSIONS: The Delphi process provided a structured methodological approach to assist clinician experts in reaching consensus on the appropriateness of specific medical therapies for the treatment of advanced carcinoid tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-404
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013


  • Carcinoid tumors
  • Intermediate-grade tumors
  • Low-grade tumors
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Well differentiated

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Hepatology
  • Endocrinology

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