T-box genes and the formation of vertebrate forelimb- and hindlimb specific pattern

Hans-Georg Simon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Limb patterning is thought to be a multistep process involving specification of the limb fields, establishment of defined signaling centers that globally inform cells of their position, interpretation of positional signals, and regulated growth and differentiation of the limb structures. Great progress has been made over the past few years in identifying the molecular players that control limb outgrowth and patterning, in particular, how the limb axes are specified. However, the molecular mechanism for determination of the morphological and functional differences between forelimbs and hindlimbs has remained elusive. The recent identification of a series of limb-specific transcription factors has now provided excellent candidates for such upstream regulators of limb identity, and has allowed new insights into the regulatory network of making a hand or a foot.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-66
Number of pages10
JournalCell and Tissue Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 26 1999


  • Limb development
  • Limb identity
  • Limb regeneration
  • T-box genes
  • Tbx2
  • Tbx3
  • Tbx4
  • Tbx5

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology
  • Cell Biology


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