Although solid-organ transplantation has evolved steadily with many breakthroughs in the past 110 y, many problems remain to be addressed, and advanced therapeutic strategies need to be considered. T-cell immunometabolism is a rapidly advancing field that has gathered much attention recently, providing ample mechanistic insight from which many novel therapeutic approaches have been developed. Applications from the field include antitumor and antimicrobial therapies, as well as for reversing graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases. However, the immunometabolism of T cells remains underexplored in solid-organ transplantation. In this review, we will highlight key findings from hallmark studies centered around various metabolic modes preferred by different T-cell subtypes (categorized into naive, effector, regulatory, and memory T cells), including glycolysis, glutaminolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid synthesis, and oxidation. This review will discuss the underlying cellular signaling components that affect these processes, including the transcription factors myelocytomatosis oncogene, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, estrogen-related receptor alpha, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, along with the mechanistic target of rapamycin and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling. We will also explore potential therapeutic strategies targeting these pathways, as applied to the potential for tolerance induction in solid-organ transplantation.
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