An emerging image of the teacher as “thoughtful professional” suggests the need for researchers to study teachers’ and students’ cognitions in addition to teacher behavior, student behavior, and student achievement. This article presents an initial conceptualization of how teachers’ and students’ cognitions and knowledge mediate effective teaching. Subject matter content and teacher and student knowledge are focused on as important dimensions that have often been ignored by researchers on teaching. Students’ “cognitional knowledge for classroom learning,” both general and content-specific, is defined as knowledge of the mental processes by which learners acquire knowledge through classroom learning. Teachers’ relevant knowledge includes both the above cognitional knowledge for classroom learning as well as “cognitional knowledge for classroom teaching.” Examples from research are provided to illustrate teachers’ and students’ cognitional and metacognitional knowledge for classroom learning and teaching. The conceptualization and examples may serve to stimulate reflection and research by those who study teaching.
ASJC Scopus subject areas