Signaling by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family is necessary for proper neural development and function throughout life. Sequential waves of activation, inhibition, and reactivation of TGF-β family members regulate numerous elements of the nervous system from the earliest stages of embryogenesis through adulthood. This review discusses the expression, regulation, and function of TGF-β family members in the central nervous system at various developmental stages, beginning with induction and patterning of the nervous system to their importance in the adult as modulators of inflammatory response and involvement in degenerative diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)