The acetyltransferase Tip60 is a critical regulator of the differentiation-dependent amplification of human papillomaviruses

Shiyuan Hong, Anindya Dutta, Laimonis A. Laimins*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is dependent upon differentiation of the infected host epithelial cell as well as activation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) DNA repair pathway that in normal cells acts to repair double-strand DNA breaks. In normal cells, following DNA damage the acetyltransferase Tip60 must acetylate ATM proteins prior to their full activation by autophosphorylation. E6 proteins have been shown to induce the degradation of Tip60, suggesting that Tip60 action may not be required for activation of the ATM pathway in HPV-positive cells. We investigated what role, if any, Tip60 plays in regulating the differentiation-dependent HPV life cycle. Our study indicates that Tip60 levels and activity are increased in cells that stably maintain complete HPV genomes as episomes, while low levels are seen in cells that express only HPV E6 and E7 proteins. Knockdown of Tip60 with short hairpin RNAs in cells that maintain HPV episomes blocked ATM induction and differentiation- dependent genome amplification, demonstrating the critical role of Tip60 in the viral life cycle. The JAK/STAT transcription factor STAT-5 has previously been shown to regulate the phosphorylation of ATM. Our studies demonstrate that STAT-5 regulates Tip60 activation and this occurs in part by targeting glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Inhibition of either STAT-5, Tip60, or GSK3β blocked differentiation-dependent genome amplification. Taken together, our findings identify Tip60 to be an important regulator of HPV genome amplification whose activity during the viral life cycle is controlled by STAT-5 and the kinase GSK3β.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4668-4675
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of virology
Volume89
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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