The Aligned Rank Transform for nonparametric factorial analyses using only ANOVA procedures

Jacob O. Wobbrock, Leah Findlater, Darren Gergle, James J. Higgins

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

589 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nonparametric data from multi-factor experiments arise often in human-computer interaction (HCI). Examples may include error counts, Likert responses, and preference tallies. But because multiple factors are involved, common nonparametric tests (e.g., Friedman) are inadequate, as they are unable to examine interaction effects. While some statistical techniques exist to handle such data, these techniques are not widely available and are complex. To address these concerns, we present the Aligned Rank Transform (ART) for nonparametric factorial data analysis in HCI. The ART relies on a preprocessing step that "aligns" data before applying averaged ranks, after which point common ANOVA procedures can be used, making the ART accessible to anyone familiar with the F-test. Unlike most articles on the ART, which only address two factors, we generalize the ART to N factors. We also provide ARTool and ARTweb, desktop and Web-based programs for aligning and ranking data. Our re-examination of some published HCI results exhibits advantages of the ART.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCHI 2011 - 29th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Conference Proceedings and Extended Abstracts
Pages143-146
Number of pages4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011
Event29th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2011 - Vancouver, BC, Canada
Duration: May 7 2011May 12 2011

Publication series

NameConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings

Other

Other29th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2011
CountryCanada
CityVancouver, BC
Period5/7/115/12/11

Keywords

  • ANOVA
  • Analysis of variance
  • F-test
  • Factorial analysis
  • Nonparametric data
  • Statistics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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  • Cite this

    Wobbrock, J. O., Findlater, L., Gergle, D., & Higgins, J. J. (2011). The Aligned Rank Transform for nonparametric factorial analyses using only ANOVA procedures. In CHI 2011 - 29th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Conference Proceedings and Extended Abstracts (pp. 143-146). (Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings). https://doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1978963