The association of whole grain consumption with incident type 2 diabetes: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

Emily D. Parker*, Simin Liu, Linda Van Horn, Leslie F. Tinker, James M. Shikany, Charles B. Eaton, Karen L. Margolis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Whole grains may offer protection from diabetes by decreasing energy intake, preventing weight gain, and direct effects on insulin resistance. This study examined associations of whole and refined grains with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) ascertained by self-reported medication use in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods: We included 72,215 women free of diabetes at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Whole grain consumption was categorized as 0, less than 0.5, 0.5 to 1.0, 1.0 to less than 1.5, 1.5 to less than 2.0, and 2.0 or more servings per day. Proportional hazards regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for potential confounders. Results: There were 3465 cases of incident T2D over median follow-up of 7.9 years. Adjusted for age and energy intake per day, successively increasing categories of whole grain consumption were associated with statistically significant reduced risk of incident T2D (HRs, 1.00, 0.83, 0.73, 0.69, 0.61, and 0.57; P for trend < 0.0001). Results were attenuated after adjustment for confounders and other dietary components. The reduction in risk of T2D was greater among nonsmokers and those who maintained their weight within 5 pounds with higher consumption of whole grains than smokers and women who gained more weight. Conclusions: This large, prospective study found an inverse dose-response relationship between whole grain consumption and incident T2D in postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-327
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Epidemiology
Volume23
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2013

Keywords

  • Cohort studies
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Whole grains

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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