The bulk of hypotheses in quantitative communication research are directional (e.g., the correlation is positive, the treatment mean is larger than the control mean). For testing such hypotheses, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and the use of effect sizes and confidence intervals (ES+CI) are functionally equivalent. ES+CI provides more precise descriptions of research results (effect sizes, confidence intervals) than does NHST, but that descriptive capability exceeds researchers' current predictive capabilities. Developing more refined predictive capabilities will require making good use of the additional information provided by ES+CI-and careful thinking about how such refined hypotheses might be tested.
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