The burden of RSV, hMPV, and PIV amongst hospitalized adults in the United States from 2016 to 2019

Ajay Bhasin*, David C. Nguyen, Benjamin J. Briggs, Hannah H. Nam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and parainfluenza virus (PIV) hospitalize many people yearly. Though severe lower respiratory tract disease has been described in children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised, there is a gap in our understanding of RSV, hMPV, and PIV in hospitalized adults. We sought to evaluate the association of RSV, hMPV, and PIV with severe respiratory disease requiring noninvasive or mechanical ventilation and death in hospitalized adults in the United States. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, pooled, cross-sectional study of general medicine hospitalizations in the United States from 2016 to 2019 using the National Inpatient Sample published by the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research. We used multivariable Poisson regression to estimate the likelihood of severe respiratory disease or death. We used linear regression to estimate the mean difference in length of stay for those hospitalized with and without a respiratory virus. Results: We found that RSV (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61–1.74, p <.001), hMPV (IRR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.71–1.93, p <.001), and PIV (IRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.68–1.94, p <.001) were independently associated with severe respiratory disease, even after adjustment. Additionally, we found the presence of a respiratory virus prolonged hospitalizations by (0.79 ± 0.27 days, p <.003) for RSV, (0.88 ± 0.28 days, p <.002) for hMPV, and (1.43 ± 0.30 days, p <.001) for PIV. Conclusions: RSV, hMPV, and PIV have a significant burden on hospitalized adults, even without classic risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-588
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hospital Medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Leadership and Management
  • Fundamentals and skills
  • Health Policy
  • Care Planning
  • Assessment and Diagnosis


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