The combination of human glandular Kallikrein and free prostrate- specific antigen (PSA) enhances discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with moderately increased total PSA

Angeliki Magklara, Andreas Scorilas, William J. Catalona, Eleftherios P. Diamandis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

114 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most reliable tumor marker available and is widely used for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Unfortunately, PSA cannot distinguish efficiently between benign and malignant disease of the prostate, especially within the range of 4-10 μg/L. Among the refinements developed to enhance PSA specificity is the free/total PSA ratio, which is useful in discriminating between the two diseases within the diagnostic 'gray zone'. Recent data indicate that human glandular kallikrein (hK2), a protein with high homology to PSA, may be an additional serum marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. Methods: We analyzed 206 serum samples (all before treatment was initiated)from men with histologically confirmed benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 100) or prostatic carcinoma (n = 106) with total PSA in the range of 2.5-10 μg/L. Total and free PSA and hK2 were measured with noncompetitive immunological procedures. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the potential utility of the various markers or their combinations in discriminating between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma. Results: hK2 concentrations were not statistically different between the two groups of patients. There was a strong positive correlation between hK2 and free PSA in the whole patient population, hK2/free PSA ratio (area under the curve = 0.69) was stronger predictor of prostate cancer than the free/total PSA ratio (area under the curve = 0.64). At 95% specificity, the hK2/free PSA ratio identified 30% of patients with total PSA between 2.5-10 μg/L who had cancer. At 95% specificity, the hK2/free PSA ratio identified 25% of patients with total PSA between 2.5 and 4.5 μg/L who had cancer. Conclusions: Our data suggest that hK2 in combination with free and total PSA can enhance the biochemical detection of prostate cancer in patients with moderately increased total PSA concentrations. More specifically, the hK2/free PSA ratio appears to be valuable in identifying a subset of patients with total PSA between 2.5 and 4.5 μg/L who have high probability of cancer and who should be considered for biopsy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1960-1966
Number of pages7
JournalClinical chemistry
Volume45
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

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