Background: Cervical screening has not effectively controlled cervical adenocarcinoma (AC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended for cervical screening but the optimal management of HPV-positive individuals to prevent AC remains a question. Cytology and HPV typing are two triage options to predict the risk of AC. We combined two potential biomarkers (atypical glandular cell, AGC, cytology and HPV-types 16, 18, or 45) to assess their joint effect on detecting AC. Methods: Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) used triennial co-testing with cytology and HPV testing (positive/negative) for routine cervical screening between 2003 and 2020. HPV typing of a sample of residual HPV test specimens was performed on a separate cohort selected from KPNC (Persistence and Progression, PaP, cohort). We compared risk of prevalent and incident histologic AC/AIS (adenocarcinoma in situ) associated with preceding combinations of cytologic results and HPV typing. Risk of squamous cell cancer (SCC)/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (SCC/CIN3) was also included for comparison. Results: Among HPV-positive individuals in PaP cohort, 99% of prevalent AC and 96% of AIS were linked to HPV-types 16, 18, or 45 (denoted HPV 16/18/45). Although rare (0.09% of screening population), the concurrent detection of HPV 16/18/45 with AGC cytology predicted a highly elevated relative risk of underlying histologic AC/AIS; the absolute risk of diagnosing AC/AIS was 12% and odds ratio (OR) was 1341 (95%CI:495–3630) compared to patients with other high-risk HPV types and normal cytology. Cumulatively (allowing non-concurrent results), approximately one-third of the AC/AIS cases ever had HPV 16/18/45 and AGC cytology (OR = 1785; 95%CI:872–3656). AGC was not as strongly associated with SCC/CIN3. Conclusion: Detection of HPV 16/18/45 positivity elevates risk of adenocarcinoma, particularly if AGC cytology is also found.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology