The Cox-Maze procedure: the Cleveland Clinic experience.

P. M. McCarthy*, A. M. Gillinov, L. Castle, M. Chung, D. Cosgrove

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

205 Scopus citations


The Cox-Maze procedure was designed to address the consequences of atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, hemodynamic impairment, and thromboembolism. From 1991 until June 1999, 100 patients underwent the Maze operation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. The group included 72 men with a mean age of 58 +/- 11 years (range, 23 to 78 years). Initially, the Maze-I procedure was performed primarily for patients with lone atrial fibrillation. However, since 1995, the Maze-III procedure has been performed exclusively, and it is typically combined with mitral valve repair. Twenty-three patients had only a Maze procedure, 60 patients had the Maze procedure/mitral valve repair, 10 patients had Maze procedure/coronary artery bypass, 6 had Maze procedure/mitral valve replacement, and 1 had Maze procedure/atrial septal defect repair. Chronic atrial fibrillation was present in 78% of patients for a mean of 8 +/- 9 years. There was a 1% perioperative mortality and 5% late mortality rate. Median hospital stay was 9 +/- 5 days. Six patients required new early permanent pacemaker insertion. With a mean follow-up of 3 years, 90.4% of patients are in sinus rhythm (or atrial pacing). Preoperative symptoms were reduced: 24% had preoperative syncope; none had syncope in follow-up; 14% of patients preoperatively had cerebral or systemic emboli; and there were no perioperative or late embolic events. The Maze procedure effectively addressed the major complications of atrial fibrillation and was associated with low perioperative and late morbidity rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-29
Number of pages5
JournalSeminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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