Hypospadias is a congenital malformation resulting from the disruption of normal urethral formation with varying global prevalence. Hypospadias repair, especially that of proximal hypospadias (in which reconstruction of a long urethra is necessary), remains a surgical challenge despite more than two decades of surgical technique development and refinement. The lack of tissue substitutes with mechanical and biological properties similar to those of native urethra is a challenge for which the field of tissue engineering might offer promising solutions. However, the use of tissue-engineered constructs in preclinical studies is still hindered by complications such as strictures or fistulae, which have slowed progression to clinical application. Furthermore, the generation of uniform tubular constructs remains a challenge. Exciting advances in the application of nanotechnology and 3D bioprinting to urethral tissue engineering might present solutions to these issues.
ASJC Scopus subject areas