The Determinants of Elevated Pathobiological Determination of Atherosclerosis in Youth Risk Score in Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents in South Africa

Sana Mahtab*, Lisa J. Frigati, Ntobeko A.B. Ntusi, Mothabisi Nyathi, Nana Akua Asafu-Agyei, Landon Myer, Heather J. Zar, Jennifer Jao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background:Youth living with perinatally acquired HIV infection (YLPHIV) are at risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Methods:We determined the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) coronary arteries (CA) and abdominal aorta (AA) risk scores among YLPHIV who are ≥15 years old in Cape Town Adolescent and Antiretroviral Cohort. PDAY score was calculated using non-high-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia, hypertension, obesity, and smoking; a score ≥1 was considered elevated. HIV viremia was categorized as sustained (SV) = viral load (VL) >50 copies/mL, transient (TV) = mix of VL >50 and ≤50 copies/mL, or sustained-virologic suppression = VL <50 copies/mL throughout the study. Among YLPHIV, logistic models were fit to assess factors associated with elevated PDAY.Results:Overall, 218 YLPHIV [median age 16.8 (interquartile range: 15.9-17.8) years, male 47%] were included. Among YLPHIV, 8% (n = 17) had SV, and 54% (n = 118) had TV. Median antiretroviral therapy (ART) duration was 12 (interquartile range: 8-14) years. Among YLPHIV, 30.3% and 18.4% had elevated PDAY for CA and AA, respectively.Among YLPHIV, SV [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 18.4, P < 0.01] and TV (aOR = 2.10, P = 0.04) compared with virologic suppression and ART duration in years (aOR = 1.12, P = 0.03) were associated with elevated CA. Male sex was associated with both elevated CA and AA (aOR = 2.14, P = 0.02, and aOR = 3.43, P = 0.01, respectively) and association of SV with elevated AA (aOR = 3.24, P = 0.09).Conclusions:A substantial proportion of YLPHIV have PDAY scores reflecting increased aggregate atherosclerotic risk. Among YLPHIV, viremia, lifetime ART duration, and male sex contribute to this risk, highlighting the importance of HIV control and the need to monitor cardiometabolic health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)82-89
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume95
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024

Keywords

  • HIV
  • adolescence
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • atherosclerosis
  • cardiovascular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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