The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

Ray Ming, Shaobin Hou, Yun Feng, Qingyi Yu, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte, Jimmy H. Saw, Pavel Senin, Wei Wang, Benjamin V. Ly, Kanako L.T. Lewis, Steven L. Salzberg, Lu Feng, Meghan R. Jones, Rachel L. Skelton, Jan E. Murray, Cuixia Chen, Wubin Qian, Junguo Shen, Peng Du, Moriah EusticeEric Tong, Haibao Tang, Eric Lyons, Robert E. Paull, Todd P. Michael, Kerr Wall, Danny W. Rice, Henrik Albert, Ming Li Wang, Yun J. Zhu, Michael Schatz, Niranjan Nagarajan, Ricelle A. Acob, Peizhu Guan, Andrea Blas, Ching Man Wai, Christine M. Ackerman, Yan Ren, Chao Liu, Jianmei Wang, Jianping Wang, Jong Kuk Na, Eugene V. Shakirov, Brian Haas, Jyothi Thimmapuram, David Nelson, Xiyin Wang, John E. Bowers, Andrea R. Gschwend, Arthur L. Delcher, Ratnesh Singh, Jon Y. Suzuki, Savarni Tripathi, Kabi Neupane, Hairong Wei, Beth Irikura, Maya Paidi, Ning Jiang, Wenli Zhang, Gernot Presting, Aaron Windsor, Rafael Navajas-Pérez, Manuel J. Torres, F. Alex Feltus, Brad Porter, Yingjun Li, A. Max Burroughs, Ming Cheng Luo, Lei Liu, David A. Christopher, Stephen M. Mount, Paul H. Moore, Tak Sugimura, Jiming Jiang, Mary A. Schuler, Vikki Friedman, Thomas Mitchell-Olds, Dorothy E. Shippen, Claude W. Depamphilis, Jeffrey D. Palmer, Michael Freeling, Andrew H. Paterson, Dennis Gonsalves, Lei Wang*, Maqsudul Alam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

838 Scopus citations


Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)991-996
Number of pages6
Issue number7190
StatePublished - Apr 24 2008
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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