The eclectic nature of glioma-infiltrating macrophages and microglia

Víctor A. Arrieta, Hinda Najem, Edgar Petrosyan, Catalina Lee-Chang, Peiwen Chen, Adam M. Sonabend*, Amy B. Heimberger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Glioblastomas (GBMs) are complex ecosystems composed of highly multifaceted tumor and myeloid cells capable of responding to different environmental pressures, including therapies. Recent studies have uncovered the diverse phenotypical identities of brain-populating myeloid cells. Differences in the immune proportions and phenotypes within tumors seem to be dictated by molecular features of glioma cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence underscores the significance of interactions between myeloid cells and glioma cells that allow them to evolve in a synergistic fashion to sustain tumor growth. In this review, we revisit the current understanding of glioma-infiltrating myeloid cells and their dialogue with tumor cells in consideration of their increasing recognition in response and resistance to immunotherapies as well as the immune impact of the current chemoradiotherapy used to treat gliomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number13382
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021


  • Gliomas
  • Immunotherapy
  • Macrophages
  • Microglia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Catalysis
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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