The Effect of Discrimination and Resilience on Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged and Older Men Who Have Sex With Men

Andre L. Brown*, Derrick D. Matthews, Steven Meanley, Mark Brennan-Ing, Sabina Haberlen, Gypsyamber D’Souza, Deanna Ware, James Egan, Steve Shoptaw, Linda A. Teplin, Mackey R. Friedman, Michael Plankey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study investigated the associations between homophobic and racist discrimination and increased depressive symptoms among 960 middle-aged and older men who have sex with men (MSM) and how resilience moderated these relationships. We used five waves of longitudinal data from the Healthy Aging substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). We used linear regression analyses to model depressive symptoms as a function of discrimination.We used linearmixed analyses tomodel changes inmean resilience scores across visits.We used linear regression analyses to model depressive symptoms as a function of changes in resilience and to test the moderation effects of resilience on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The models accounted for repeated measures of resilience. Men who experienced external and internal homophobia had greater depressive symptoms, β: 2.08; 95% CI [0.65, 3.51]; β: 1.60; 95% CI [0.76, 2.44]. Men experienced significant changes in mean resilience levels across visits (F = 2.84, p =.02).Men with a greater positive change in resilience had lower depressive symptoms, β: −0.95; 95% CI [−1.47, −0.43]. Men with higher average resilience levels had lower depressive symptoms, β: −5.08; 95% CI [−5.68, −4.49]. Men’s resilience did not moderate the relationship between homophobia and depressive symptoms. Significant associations of external and internal homophobia with greater depressive symptoms present targets for future research and interventions amongmiddle-aged and olderMSM. Significant associations of average and positive changes in resilience with lower depressive symptoms provide aims for future research and interventions with this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-121
Number of pages9
JournalStigma and Health
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Depression
  • Discrimination
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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