The effect of Ginkgo biloba and psycho-education on stress, anxiety and fatigue among refugees

Ahmed Mohammad Alsmadi*, Loai Issa Tawalbeh, Omar Salem Gammoh, Mohammad Qassem Shawagfeh, Waleed Zalloum, Ala Ashour, Hrayr Attarian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Refugees and war survivors are at higher risk of developing mental health disorders. Anxiety and stress are caused by many factors, including a stressful environment that could cause fatigue and low quality of life. Despite the existence of many synthetic anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs, symptom management has still not been successful. Ginkgo biloba extract has been used as one of the potential herbal remedies to enhance cognitive functions. Psycho-education plays a significant role in alleviating psychological distress. However, the role of G. biloba in alleviating anxiety, stress and fatigue among refugees was not well studied previously. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of G. biloba and psycho-education with only psycho-education on refugees’ anxiety, stress and fatigue. Methods: A randomized controlled, pre-test–post-test design was used. Data were measured at baseline and 6 weeks later. Results: Providing psycho-education for the control group showed a non-significant improvement in outcome variables. However, adding G. biloba to psycho-education for the experimental group showed a significant reduction in mental, physical, activity fatigue and anxiety. Conclusion: The addition of G. biloba to the psycho-education proved superior to psycho-education alone. Therefore, combining the two approaches is beneficial in alleviating anxiety and fatigue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26-32
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of Singapore Healthcare
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018


  • Anxiety
  • Ginkgo biloba
  • fatigue
  • psycho-education
  • refugees

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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