The Effect of Smoking on Thirty-Day Postoperative Complications After Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

Shawn Sahota, Francis Lovecchio, Ryan E. Harold*, Matthew D. Beal, David W. Manning

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a highly successful treatment, but is burdensome to the national healthcare budget. National quality initiatives seek to reduce costly complications. Smoking's role in perioperative complication after TJA is less well known. This study aims to identify smoking's independent contribution to the risk of short-term complication after TJA. Methods All patients undergoing primary TJA between 2011 and 2012 were selected from the American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program's database. Outcomes of interest included rates of readmission, reoperation, mortality, surgical complications, and medical complications. To eliminate confounders between smokers and nonsmokers, a propensity score was used to generate a 1:1 match between groups. Results A total of 1251 smokers undergoing TJA met inclusion criteria. Smokers in the combined total hip and knee arthroplasty cohort had higher 30-day readmission (4.8% vs 3.2%, P =.041), were more likely to have a surgical complication (odds ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.80), and had a higher rate of deep surgical site infection (SSI) (1.1% vs 0.2%, P =.007). Analysis of total hip arthroplasty only revealed that smokers had higher rates of deep SSI (1.3% vs 0.2%, P =.038) and higher readmission rate (4.3% vs 2.2%, P =.034). Analysis of total knee arthroplasty only revealed greater surgical complications (2.8% vs 1.2%, P =.048) and superficial SSI (1.8% vs 0.2%, P =.002) in smokers. Conclusion Smoking in TJA is associated with higher rates of SSI, surgical complications, and readmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30-35
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2018

Keywords

  • complications
  • mortality
  • smoking
  • total hip arthroplasty
  • total knee arthroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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