The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system

Matthew J. Major*, Joel Scham, Michael Orendurff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Background: Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user’s choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Objectives: Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Study design: Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. Methods: The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Results: Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%–9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Conclusion: Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance: Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-207
Number of pages10
JournalProsthetics and orthotics international
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018


  • Biomechanics of prosthetic/orthotic devices
  • biomechanics
  • prosthetic design
  • prosthetic feet
  • prosthetics
  • rehabilitation
  • rehabilitation of prostheses users

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Rehabilitation


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