The Effects of Opioid Substitution Treatment and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the Cause-Specific Risk of Mortality among HIV-Positive People Who Inject Drugs

Bohdan Nosyk*, Jeong E. Min, Elizabeth Evans, Libo Li, Lei Liu, Viviane D. Lima, Evan Wood, Julio S.G. Montaner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background.Prior studies indicated opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces mortality risk and improves the odds of accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the relative effects of these treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) are unclear. We determine the independent and joint effects of OST and HAART on mortality, by cause, within a population of HIV-positive PWID initiating HAART. Methods.Using a linked population-level database for British Columbia, Canada, we used time-to-event analytic methods, including competing risks models, proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates, and marginal structural models, to identify the independent and joint effects of OST and HAART on all-cause as well as drug- and HIV-related mortality, controlling for covariates. Results.Among 1727 HIV-positive PWID, 493 (28.5%) died during a median 5.1 years (interquartile range, 2.1-9.1) of follow-up: 18.7% due to drug-related causes, 55.8% due to HIV-related causes, and 25.6% due to other causes. Standardized mortality ratios were 12.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8, 15.0) during OST and 30.0 (27.1, 33.1) during periods out of OST. Both OST (adjusted hazard, 0.34; 95% CI,. 23,. 49) and HAART (0.39 [0.31, 0.48]) decreased the hazard of all-cause mortality; however, individuals were at lowest risk of death when these medications were used jointly (0.16 [0.10, 0.26]). Both OST and HAART independently protected against HIV-related death, drug-related death and death due to other causes. Conclusions.While both OST and HAART are life-saving treatments, joint administration is urgently needed to protect against both drug- and HIV-related mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1157-1165
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume61
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

Keywords

  • HIV/AIDS
  • highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • injection drug users
  • mortality
  • opioid substitution treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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