The effects of priming on rhinologic patient reported outcome measures: a randomized controlled trial

Nathan Yang*, Adam Waytz, Zachary M. Soler, Jonathan B. Overdevest, David A. Gudis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are questio-nnaires designed to assess a patient’s perception of their medical condition. The 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22), the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) and the mini-Rhino-conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ) are validated PROMs commonly used to assess rhinologic conditions. The objective of this study is to determine if responses on these PROMs may be influenced by priming respondents with positive or negative health-related questionnaires. Methods: Nine hundred patients were prospectively randomized to one of nine groups. Groups A, D and G were positively primed prior to completing the SNOT-22, the RSDI and MiniRQLQ, respectively. Groups B, E, and H were negatively primed. Groups C, F, and I served as control groups, completing the PROMs without priming. Priming was performed by administering a survey designed to make patients think about their health-related quality of life in a positive or negative way. Results: Patients who were primed negatively had statistically significantly worse scores on the SNOT-22, RSDI and MiniRQLQ when compared to patients who were primed positively. When compared to the control group, patients who were primed negatively had statistically worse scores on the SNOT-22 and RSDI. There was no significant difference in scores between the positive priming and the control groups for any PROM. Conclusions: Priming subjects regarding their health-related quality of life impacts their responses on rhinologic PROMs. Further study is required to understand the clinical and research implications of this novel finding and to clarify the optimal manner for administering and interpreting PROMs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-83
Number of pages13
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024


  • MiniRQLQ
  • PROM
  • RSDI
  • SNOT-22
  • patient-reported outcome measure
  • priming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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