The functional assessment of cancer therapy-anemia (FACT-An) scale: A new tool for the assessment of outcomes in cancer anemia and fatigue

D. Cella*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

600 Scopus citations


Anemia, frequently associated with cancer and cancer treatment, can cause a variety of symptoms that diminish overall quality of life (QOL). Fatigue is the most commonly reported symptom among cancer patients and can significantly affect their daily lives. Using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) instrument, which measures general QOL, as a core questionnaire, 20 new questions related to the impact of fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms on patients with cancer were developed. Two new instruments were produced: the FACT-Fatigue (FACT-F), consisting of the FACT- G plus 13 fatigue items (the Fatigue Subscale), and the FACT-Anemia (FACT- An), consisting of the FACT-F plus seven items addressing other concerns related to anemia, but unrelated to fatigue. FACT-F and FACT-An demonstrated good stability (r = .87 for both) and strong internal consistency (alpha = .95 and .96, respectively). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the Fatigue Subscale and nonfatigue items also showed good stability (r = .84 to .90), and the Fatigue Subscale showed strong internal consistency (alpha = .93 to .95). Convergent and discriminant validity testing revealed a significantly positive relationship with other known measures of fatigue, a significant negative relationship with vigor, and an anticipated lack of relationship with social desirability. The FACT-An, FACT-F, and the Fatigue Subscale were found to successfully discriminate patients based on hemoglobin (Hb) level and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. When patients were divided into two groups by Hb levels, patients with Hb levels greater than 12 g/dL reported significantly less fatigue, fewer nonfatigue anemia symptoms, better physical well-being, better functional well-being, and higher general QOL. The FACT-An, the FACT-F, and the Fatigue Sub-scale are useful measures of QOL in cancer patients and add focus to the widespread clinical problems of anemia and fatigue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-19
Number of pages7
JournalSeminars in Hematology
Issue number3 SUPPL. 3
StatePublished - Aug 12 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


Dive into the research topics of 'The functional assessment of cancer therapy-anemia (FACT-An) scale: A new tool for the assessment of outcomes in cancer anemia and fatigue'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this