The Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure: Psychometric Validity of an Adolescent Extension

Marco A. Hidalgo*, Hanno Petras, Diane Chen, Gia Chodzen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Objective: Minority stress contributes to several physical and psychological problems in sexual and gender minorities but is largely understudied in transgender/gender- nonconforming (TGNC) individuals, particularly TGNC adolescents. The availability of psychometrically sound measures of adolescent minority stress can help improve assessment and treatment planning in this area. This original research study examined whether an existing measure of TGNC-related minority stress and resilience among adults could retain construct and psychometric validity when administered to TGNC adolescents. Method: Respondents were 258 TGNC adolescents, aged 12 to 17.99 years (M= 15.1, SD= 1.4), majority White/European American (70.2%) and assigned female at birth (71.7%) seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Respondents completed a battery of clinical measures as standard of care, including the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience (GMSR) measure, measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and parental support. Results: Findings indicated that minor adaptation of the existing adult measure resulted in high internal consistency and construct validity across 9 subscales assessing domains of minority stress and resilience in this sample of TGNC adolescents. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an adolescent extension of the GMSR (i.e., GMSR-A). These findings demonstrate the clinical utility of the GMSR-A, a tool that can help increase understanding of minority stress and resilience phenomena experienced by TGNC adolescents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)278-290
Number of pages13
JournalClinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2019


  • adolescents
  • measurement
  • social stigma
  • transgender/gender-nonconforming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Applied Psychology


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